I am a social and cultural historian. My work explores the history and the memory of the Atlantic slave trade and slavery and their social and cultural legacies. I am particularly interested in the public memory, heritage, and visual culture of slavery. In the last fifteen years, I authored and edited over ten books and published nearly fifty articles and chapters on these themes. I lecture and publish in English, Portuguese, French, and Spanish in the United States and abroad.
My book Reparations for Slavery and the Slave Trade: A Transnational and Comparative History (available for pre-order) will be published in the Fall 2017. The book examines from a transnational perspective the history of the demands of reparations for slavery and the slave trade in the Americas, Europe, and Africa.
Over the last years, I published a number of books. Brazil Through French Eyes: A Nineteenth-Century Artist in the Tropics (2015) is a revised, updated, and expanded English version of my book Romantisme tropical (2008). I explore the idea of “tropical romanticism,” a vision of Brazil with an emphasis on the exotic. I examine the travelogue Deux années au Brésil by the French artist François-Auguste Biard, by situating his work in the context of the European travel writing of the time. The book shows how representations of Brazil through French travelogues contributed and reinforced cultural stereotypes and ideas about race and race relations in Brazil.
My book Shadows of the Slave Past: Memory, Heritage and Slavery (2014) examines the processes that led to the memorialization of slavery and the Atlantic slave trade in the second half of the twentieth century. I explore numerous kinds of initiatives such as monuments, memorials, and museums as well as heritage sites. By connecting different projects developed in Europe, Africa, and the Americas during the last two decades, I discuss how different groups and social actors have competed to occupy the public arena by associating the slave past with other human atrocities, especially the Holocaust. I look at how the populations of African descent, white elites, and national governments, very often carrying particular political agendas, appropriated the slave past by fighting to make it visible or conceal it in the public space of former slave societies.
Public Memory of Slavery: Victims and Perpetrators in the South Atlantic, published in 2010, explores the recent phenomenon of memorialization of slavery in Brazil and Benin (West Africa). By examining monuments, memorials, and museums, I argue that the construction of the public memory of slavery in the South Atlantic is not only the result of survivals from the period of the Atlantic slave trade but also the outcome of a transnational movement that was accompanied by the continuous intervention of institutions and individuals who promoted the relations between Brazil and the present-day Republic of Benin.
In Romantisme tropical : l’aventure illustrée d’un peintre français au Brésil (2008) I examine the construction of a particular image of Brazil in nineteenth-century France. I look at the various written and visual representations of Brazilian natives and black populations, through the work of the French artist François-Auguste Biard (1799-1882), in particular his richly illustrated travelogue Deux Années au Brésil (1862). The book argues that the image of Brazil conveyed in Biard’s travelogue, is part of a long French tradition of representing Brazil, which started in the sixteenth century, intensified during the nineteenth century, and persists today.
I also edited a number of books: African Heritage and Memories of Slavery in Brazil and the South Atlantic World (2015), Politics of Memory: Making Slavery Visible in the Public Space (2012), Paths of the Atlantic Slave Trade: Interactions, Identities (2011), and Living History: Encountering the Memory of the Heirs of Slavery (2009). I also co-edited the volume Crossing Memories: Slavery and African Diaspora (2011).
My current book project provisionally titled Slavery and the Battles of History and Memory explains why today more than never before, slavery and the Atlantic slave trade are the object of growing discussion in the public sphere. Exploring in each chapter the notions of collective memory, cultural memory, public memory, official memory, and public history, and using examples from different societies where slavery existed, I show that these debates are more than simple attempts to come to terms with the past. They rather reveal the persistency of white supremacy, racism, and racial inequalities in former slave societies. In these days, when readers have a hard time to distinguish accurate information from fake news, this book will discuss how history and memory relate to fact and fiction, in order to understand the current debates on slavery.
Currently, I am a Professor of History at Howard University (Washington DC). I am the editor of the book series Slavery: Past and Present, by Cambria Press. I also chair the Brazil Advanced Area Studies Seminar at the Foreign Service Institute of the US Department of State. I am engaged in disseminating my scholarship to the public. In am active on Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr, and Googleplus, where I created the hashtag #slaveryarchive in order to follow news and initiatives related to the study of slavery in the past and the present. I also created the website A Historian’s Views: Digital Humanities and Arts in the Age of Presentism to share comments on my scholarship, and current events related to the topics of memory and slavery.